Uni - Developmental Psychology Advanced Topics

  • Metadata:
    • lecturer: Marina Kammermeier
    • title: LMU - Developmental Psychology Advanced Topics

Social-Cognitive Development

Social Cognition

  • Early Understanding of Actions

    Paper - Infants selectively encode the goal object of an actor's reachPaper - Infants selectively encode the goal object of an actor's reach

    Metadata:

    author: Amanda L. Woodward
    title: Infants selectively encode the goal object of an actor's reach
    year: [[1998]]
    url: Weblink




    Used a [[looking tim...
    used a looking time paradigmlooking time paradigm
    A basic paradigm used in developmental psychology to research phenomena in early-childhood, as participants have no means of direct communication. The time a child fixates on a scene is measured an...
    to show that 9 month old infants understand goal-oriented actions of others. Paper - Infants generate goal-based action predictionsPaper - Infants generate goal-based action predictions

    Metadata:

    author: Erin N. Cannon, Amanda L. Woodward
    title: Infants generate goal-based action predictions
    year: [[2012]]
    url: Weblink


    Research Question:
    ...
    argues that infants are also able to successfully anticipate these goal-oriented actions using eye-tracking (lean interpretation proponents could argue that the previous Woodward study only showed pattern recognition). However, Paper - Actions Seen through Babies Eyes.. A Dissociation between Looking Time and Predictive GazePaper - Actions Seen through Babies Eyes.. A Dissociation between Looking Time and Predictive Gaze

    Metadata:

    author: Moritz Daum, Manja Attig, Ronald Gunawan, Wolfgang Prinz, Gustaf Gredebäck
    title: Actions Seen through Babies’ Eyes: A Dissociation between Looking Time and Pr...
    shows that there is a disassociation between results form looking time and eye-tracking paradigms, contradicting the findings of the previous paper and raising questions about what the measures actually mean.

  • Implicit Theory of Mind

    Even though a previous study involving the "Duplo Task" claimed to have shown a ToMToM
    .
    in 36 month-old children, Paper - Do action-based tasks evidence false-belief understanding in young children§Paper - Do action-based tasks evidence false-belief understanding in young children§

    Metadata:

    author: Marina Kammermeier, Markus Paulus
    title: Do action-based tasks evidence false-belief understanding in young children?
    year: [[2018]]
    url: Weblink
    ...
    fails to replicate this and calls in question the comparability of the "Duplo task" with traditional false belief measures. While implicit ToM predates an explicit ToM in young children, adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder show an interesting trend: They succeed in explicit ToM tasks, but perform at chance level in measures of implicit ToM. Paper - Implicit and explicit Theory of Mind reasoning in autism spectrum disorders.. The impact of experiencePaper - Implicit and explicit Theory of Mind reasoning in autism spectrum disorders.. The impact of experience

    Metadata:

    author: Tobias Schuwerk, Maria Vuori, Beate Sodian
    title: Implicit and explicit Theory of Mind reasoning in autism spectrum disorders: The impact of experience
    y...
    replicates these findings and tries to answer if repeated exposure to events will help to close the gap in implicit ToM between people with ASD and neurotypicals. The results are indecisive.

  • Imitation and social learning

    Paper - Imitation of facial and manual gestures by human neonatesPaper - Imitation of facial and manual gestures by human neonates

    Metadata:

    author: A. N. Meltzoff, M. K. Moore
    title: Imitation of facial and manual gestures by human neonates
    year: [[1977]]
    url: Weblink


    Research Questio...
    argues that we are already born with the tendency to imitate the actions of others. On the contrary, Paper - Comprehensive Longitudinal Study Challenges the Existence of Neonatal Imitation in HumansPaper - Comprehensive Longitudinal Study Challenges the Existence of Neonatal Imitation in Humans

    Metadata:

    author: Janine Oostenbroek, Thomas Suddendorf, Mark Nielsen, Jonathan Redshaw, Siobhan Kennedy-Costantini, Jacqueline Davis, Sally Clark, Virginia Slaughter
    title: Com...
    conducted a longitudal study with infants up to 9 weeks old and finds no evidence of such neonatal imitation.

    Bookchapter - Schlüsselexperimente der EntwicklungspsychologieBookchapter - Schlüsselexperimente der Entwicklungspsychologie

    Metadata:

    author: Markus Paulus
    title: Schlüsselexperimente der Entwicklungspsychologie
    year: [[2019]]
    url: Weblink




    Gergely -> Imitation

    Background:
    ...
    presents a study by Gergley that shows the selective nature of children's imitation and argues that children take the efficiency of an action into account when imitating. This stance is opposed by Paper - Imitation in infancy.. Rational or motor resonance§Paper - Imitation in infancy.. Rational or motor resonance§

    Metadata:

    author: Markus Paulus, Sabine Hunnius, Marlies Vissers, Harold Bekkering
    title: Imitation in infancy: Rational or motor resonance?
    year: [[2011]]
    url: Webl...
    , which states that motor resonance plays a more central role in imitation than a rational evaluation of efficiency.

Social Interaction and Communication

  • Development of the pointing gesture

    The origin and the development of the pointing gesture in infantspointing gesture in infants
    Social pointing in infants develops between 9 months (understanding) and 12 months (production) and is a fundamental communicative gesture. Prior, pointing is primarily used for private purposes, l...
    is a heavily discussed topic in developmental psychology. While early research mostly focused on western children, Paper - A prelinguistic gestural universal of human communicationPaper - A prelinguistic gestural universal of human communication

    Metadata:

    author: Ulf Liszkowski, Penny Brown, Tara Callaghan, Akira Takada, Conny de Vos
    title: A prelinguistic gestural universal of human communication
    year: [[2012]]
    ...
    manages to show that the pointing gesture is used as a prelinguistic form of communication regardless of culture. Paper - The origin of pointing.. Evidence for the touch hypothesisPaper - The origin of pointing.. Evidence for the touch hypothesis

    Metadata:

    author: Cathal O’Madagain, Gregor Kachel, Brent Strickland
    title: The origin of pointing: Evidence for the touch hypothesis
    year: [[2019]]
    url: Weblink
    ...
    demonstrated in 3 different studies that the pointing gesture likely develops out of touching gestures. As to explore the functionality of the pointing gesture beyond simply guiding attention, Paper - Pointing as epistemic request.. 12‐month‐olds point to receive new informationPaper - Pointing as epistemic request.. 12‐month‐olds point to receive new information

    Metadata:

    author: Ágnes Melinda Kovács, Tibor Tauzin, Ernő Téglás, György Gergely, Gergely Csibra
    title: Pointing as epistemic request: 12‐month‐olds point to receive new inform...
    found evidence that one year-olds use them to request information about objects from others.

  • Language Acquisition

    Communicative gestures (like the pointing gesture) could have relevance for language development. Paper - Differences in early gesture explain SES disparities in child vocabulary size at school entryPaper - Differences in early gesture explain SES disparities in child vocabulary size at school entry

    Metadata:

    author: Meredith L. Rowe, Susan Goldin-Meadow
    title: Differences in early gesture explain SES disparities in child vocabulary size at school entry
    year: [[2009]]...
    showed evidence that the gesture usage at 18 months old is associated with vocabulary size at 54 months old and can therefore be seen as a possible mediating variable between SES and vocabulary.

Executive Functions and Self-Regulation

Paper - Executive Function.. Implications for EducationPaper - Executive Function.. Implications for Education

Metadata:

author: P. Zelazo, C. Blair, M. Willoughby
title: Executive Function: Implications for Education. NCER 2017-2000.
year: [[2016]]
url: Weblink




(Mi...
gives a broad introduction into executive functions, how they develop, and what factors influence them. The importance of executive functions in early childhood was shown by Shoda, Mischel, and Peake’s (1990) in their famous "Marshmallow Test" study, where the ability to delay gratification strongly correlated with later success in life. Paper - Revisiting the Marshmallow Test.. A Conceptual Replication Investigating Links Between Early Delay of Gratification and Later OutcomesPaper - Revisiting the Marshmallow Test.. A Conceptual Replication Investigating Links Between Early Delay of Gratification and Later Outcomes

Metadata:

author: Tyler W. Watts, Greg J. Duncan, Haonan Quan
title: Revisiting the Marshmallow Test: A Conceptual Replication Investigating Links Between Early Delay of Gratifi...
tries to replicate these findings with a larger and more diverse sample. Surprisingly, it fails to replicate the original study, even in the group that resembles the originals sample. The short term effects were nowhere near as big as the ones shown in the original study, and no significant effect was found at age 15.


Social-Emotional Development

Attachment - Effect on development

Bookchapter - Theorien in der EntwicklungspsychologieBookchapter - Theorien in der Entwicklungspsychologie

Metadata:

author: Lieselotte Ahnert
title: Theorien in der Entwicklungspsychologie




has an entire chapter dedicated to the theory around attachmentattachment
.
. Main introduced the famous Adult Attachment Interview in a study described in Bookchapter - Schlüsselexperimente der EntwicklungspsychologieBookchapter - Schlüsselexperimente der Entwicklungspsychologie

Metadata:

author: Markus Paulus
title: Schlüsselexperimente der Entwicklungspsychologie
year: [[2019]]
url: Weblink




Gergely -> Imitation

Background:
...
. This study also provides evidence for the development of generalized internal working models that come from attachment based experiences and influence our behavior as adults, as well as for intergenerational transmission of attachment quality. The role of parents in the attachment style was more closely looked at by Paper - Correlates of child-father and child-mother attachment in the preschool yearsPaper - Correlates of child-father and child-mother attachment in the preschool years

Metadata:

author: Jean-François Bureau, Jodi Martin, Kim Yurkowski, Sabrina Schmiedel, Jeffry Quan, Ellen Moss, Audrey-Ann Deneault, Dominique Pallanca
title: Correlates of chil...
. The paper takes a closer look at the role of the father-attachment in the child development and provides evidence that shows that parental play sensitivity is integral to attachment security. Paper - Children's attachment representations.. longitudinal relations to school behavior and academic competency in middle childhood and adolescencePaper - Children's attachment representations.. longitudinal relations to school behavior and academic competency in middle childhood and adolescence

Metadata:

author: T. Jacobsen, V. Hofmann
title: Children's attachment representations: longitudinal relations to school behavior and academic competency in middle childhood and...
shows some long term effects of attachment representations: securely attached children score significantly better both academically and in terms of school behavior, even when controlling possible confounders like SES and IQ.

Parental Sensitivity and Availability

  • Measuring of parental sensitivity

    Biringen (2008) developed the Emotional AvailabilityEmotional Availability
    The Emotional Availability Scale (Biringen, 2008) measures 6 behavioral aspects on a 1-7 likert-scale:

    Adult

    Sensitivity (Ainsworth)
    Structuring
    Non-intrusiveness
    No...
    Scale to capture parental sensitivity in the dyadic interaction with the child.

  • Effect on development

    Paper - Mother-infant Interaction Quality and Infants' Ability to Encode Actions as Goal-directedPaper - Mother-infant Interaction Quality and Infants' Ability to Encode Actions as Goal-directed

    Metadata:

    author: Maria Licata, Markus Paulus, Claudia Thoermer, Susanne Kristen-Antonow, Amanda Woodward, Beate Sodian
    title: Mother-infant Interaction Quality and Infants' Abi...
    was able to show that the emotional availabilityemotional availability
    The Emotional Availability Scale (Biringen, 2008) measures 6 behavioral aspects on a 1-7 likert-scale:

    Adult

    Sensitivity (Ainsworth)
    Structuring
    Non-intrusiveness
    No...
    of mothers correlates positively with the ability of 7-month-olds to encode actions as goal oriented. The effect of Emotional AvailabilityEmotional Availability
    The Emotional Availability Scale (Biringen, 2008) measures 6 behavioral aspects on a 1-7 likert-scale:

    Adult

    Sensitivity (Ainsworth)
    Structuring
    Non-intrusiveness
    No...
    on the self-perception of children was looked at in Paper - The impact of mother-child interaction quality and cognitive abilities on children’s self-concept and self-esteemPaper - The impact of mother-child interaction quality and cognitive abilities on children’s self-concept and self-esteem

    Metadata:

    author: Markus Paulus, Maria Licata, Burkhard Gniewosz, Beate Sodian
    title: The impact of mother-child interaction quality and cognitive abilities on children’s self-c...
    . In their longitudal study, they found that children's academic self-concept was predicted by their cognitive functioning, but their social self-concept was exclusively predicted by their mothers' early sensitivity and non-hostility. Furthermore, Paper - Maternal sensitivity and non-intrusiveness at 12 months predict attention to emotional facial expressions at 24 months.. A cross-lagged panel approachPaper - Maternal sensitivity and non-intrusiveness at 12 months predict attention to emotional facial expressions at 24 months.. A cross-lagged panel approach

    Metadata:

    author: Marina Kammermeier, Markus Paulus
    title: Maternal sensitivity and non-intrusiveness at 12 months predict attention to emotional facial expressions at 24 months...
    presents evidence that early emotional availability has some effect on the child's later visual attention in regards to emotions.

  • Effectiveness of sensitivity based interventions

    Paper - Less is more.. meta-analyses of sensitivity and attachment interventions in early childhoodPaper - Less is more.. meta-analyses of sensitivity and attachment interventions in early childhood

    Metadata:

    author: Marian J. Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marinus H. van IJzendoorn, Femmie Juffer
    title: Less is more: meta-analyses of sensitivity and attachment interventions in earl...
    makes a point that early interventions with a behavioral focus and a small amount of sessions have the best effect on improving motherly sensitivity. The paper also draws an important link between motherly sensitivity and attachment, as interventions that increase sensitivity also have a positive effect on attachment security in early childhood (implied causal relationship). An example for such an intervention is presented by Paper - Effective preventive interventions to support parents of young children.. Illustrations from VIPP-SDPaper - Effective preventive interventions to support parents of young children.. Illustrations from VIPP-SD

    Metadata:

    author: Femmie Juffer, Estelle Struis, Claudia Werner, Marian J. Bakermans-Kranenburg
    title: Effective preventive interventions to support parents of young children: I...
    . VIPP-SD was shown to increase the motherly sensitivity and improve child behavior significantly.

Prosocial/Moral Development

  • Help, Share, Cheer up

    Developmental psychology has taken a special interest in the development of prosocial behaviorprosocial behavior
    Prosocial behavior encompasses all actions that benefit others without having a direct (material) gain for the actor. Typical prosocial behavior seen in children: sharing, helping, and cheering up....
    in early childhood. Paper - On the Nature of Toddlers' Helping.. Helping or Interest in Others' Activity§Paper - On the Nature of Toddlers' Helping.. Helping or Interest in Others' Activity§

    Metadata:

    author: Jeremy Carpendale, Viktoria Kettner, Karyn Audet
    title: On the Nature of Toddlers' Helping: Helping or Interest in Others' Activity?
    year: [[2014]]
    ...
    tackled the issue whether prosocial behavior in young children stems from altruism or mere imitation. The case studies presented indicate that children are indeed more likely to be imitating adult behavior, which raises the question if imitation is a precursor to actual altruism. The Zahn-Waxler study in Bookchapter - Schlüsselexperimente der EntwicklungspsychologieBookchapter - Schlüsselexperimente der Entwicklungspsychologie

    Metadata:

    author: Markus Paulus
    title: Schlüsselexperimente der Entwicklungspsychologie
    year: [[2019]]
    url: Weblink




    Gergely -> Imitation

    Background:
    ...
    shows an increase in both empathy and prosocial behavior during the second year of life, supporting the hypothesis that empathy leads to prosocial behavior. The motives behind children's tendency to share are not inherently guided by morals though, as Paper - Friendship trumps neediness.. The impact of social relations and others’ wealth on preschool children’s sharingPaper - Friendship trumps neediness.. The impact of social relations and others’ wealth on preschool children’s sharing

    Metadata:

    author: Markus Paulus
    title: Friendship trumps neediness: The impact of social relations and others’ wealth on preschool children’s sharing
    year: [[2016]]
    ...
    finds that preschool children would rather share with a rich friend than with a poor non-friend. The evidence suggests that social relations beat morals/fairness in these kinds of decisions. This trend gets even more pronounced when looking at elementary school children.

  • Normative Dispositions

    Paper - Normative expectations about fairness.. The development of a charity norm in preschoolersPaper - Normative expectations about fairness.. The development of a charity norm in preschoolers

    Metadata:

    author: Monika Wörle, Markus Paulus
    title: Normative expectations about fairness: The development of a charity norm in preschoolers
    year: [[2017]]
    url: Web...
    shows that children ages 5 and up have a norm of charity in regards to the fair distribution of resources. It operationalizes reward and punishment with good and bad tasting cookies, and uses the verbal protest as an effective measure for normative expectations. Paper - The emergence of human altruism.. Preschool children develop a norm for empathy-based comfortingPaper - The emergence of human altruism.. Preschool children develop a norm for empathy-based comforting

    Metadata:

    author: Markus Paulus, Monika Wörle, Natalie Christner
    title: The emergence of human altruism:Preschool children develop a norm for empathy-based comforting
    year...
    takes a look at the norm of empathy-based comforting. It presents evidence that this norm develops during preschool, with 3 year-olds showing some signs of the norm while 5 year-olds showed heavy signs of a norm for empathy-based comforting.