Bookchapter - Schl├╝sselexperimente der Entwicklungspsychologie

  • Metadata:
    • author: Markus Paulus
    • title: Schl├╝sselexperimente der Entwicklungspsychologie
    • year: 20192019

    • url: Weblink

Gergely -> Imitation

  • Background:
    • Is infant imitation rational?
    • Teleology: Idea, that Actions and Processes are oriented around goals
    • Principle of efficiency: Actions are rational and efficient
  • Research Question:
    • Do infants judge the efficiency of an action and therefore imitate selectively and rationally?
  • Method:
    • 14 month old children
    • 2 conditions shown where a person tried to turn on lamp by pushing their forehead onto a button:
      • hands-occupied: Person cannot use their hands
      • hands-free: Person could use their hands in theory
  • Results:
    • Children imitate the behavior in the hands-free condition significantly more than in the hands-occupied condition
  • Interpretation:
    • Children take efficiency into account when imitating (the hands occupied condition could be executed more efficiently by using my hands, but the hands-free condition is deliberately inefficient, so there has to be something new to learn here)
    • ! Study was replicated multiple times, but explanation is heavily disputed (child war irritated by weird body pose; action is not part of typical motor skills of child, so action-effect-association could not be built)
      • paulusImitationInfancyRational2011paulusImitationInfancyRational2011


        author: Markus Paulus, Sabine Hunnius, Marlies Vissers, Harold Bekkering
        title: Imitation in infancy: Rational or motor resonance?
        year: [[2011]]
        url: Webl...
        argues against the interpretation of Gergely

Main -> Attachment

  • Background:
  • Research Question:
    • Do we develop an attachmetn based generalized internal working model when growing up, that also influences behavior as adults?
  • Method:
    • Strange-Situation-Procedure as a toddler
    • second test at 6 years of age that separates children from their parents for one hour and observes reunion, interactions with the researcher, and openness to talk about separation experience
    • Development of the Adult Attachment Interview
  • Results:
    • Correlation between attachment type as a toddler and as a 6-year old
    • Correlation between attachment type of child and the results of the AAI
  • Interpretation:
    • Evidence for the generation of internal working models as a result of early attachment experiences that influence our behavior as adults.
    • Evidence for intergenerational transmission of attachment quality.

Zahn-Waxler -> Empathy & Altruism

  • Background:
    • prosocial behaviorprosocial behavior
      Prosocial behavior encompasses all actions that benefit others without having a direct (material) gain for the actor. Typical prosocial behavior seen in children: sharing, helping, and cheering up....
  • Method:
    • At Home:
      • Observations at 1 yo, 1.5 yo, 2 yo
      • Mothers should inspect child's reaction to the emotions of others and record them
      • Mothers should simulate emotions and record their child's reaction
    • In Lab:
      • Mother and child were recorded on video (2 yo)
      • Mother and researcher simulate pain/sadness or there is a recording of a crying baby
      • Rouge Test
    • 4 measurements taken:
      • empathetic concern
      • hypothesis testing
        • kognitive empathy, verbal description of the situation and pointing gestures
      • self-distress
      • prosocial behavior
  • Results:
    • EC, HT and PB increase over time, especially when children did not cause the observed distress
    • SD decreases over time, if children did not cause the distress
    • Correlation between rouge-test and EC and PB
  • Interpretation:
    • EC and PB develop during the second year of life
    • Connections between EC and PB support the empathy-altruism-hypothesis (feeling empathy leads to altruistic behavior)
    • Goes against Freud's and Piagets view of the egocentric child
    • (TODO rouge)